Now showing items 579-598 of 977

    • Meeting Kyoto Commitments: European Union Influence on Norway and Germany 

      Bang, Guri; Vevatne, Jonas; Twena, Michelle; Lee, Ho-Ching (CICERO Working Paper;2004:12, Working paper, 2004)
      In this paper, we seek to understand and explain how the EU has influenced the climate change policymaking processes in Norway and Germany, despite strong prior national preferences. We ask how the EU has affected the ...
    • Metagoverning through intermediaries: the role of the Norwegian “Klimasats” Fund in translating national climate goals to local implementation 

      Farstad, Fay Madeleine; Tønnesen, Anders; Christensen, Ingrid; Sødal Grasbekk, Bård; Brudevoll, Kristiane (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      There is little knowledge of how policymakers manage governance networks (“metagovern”) within climate policy and especially at non-executive levels of public management. One strategy to metagovern is through using ...
    • Metallindustrien i Norge: økonomi, sysselsetting og utslipp av klimagasser 

      Godal, Odd (CICERO Policy Note;1998:02, Working paper, 1998)
    • Methane and the Paris Agreement temperature goals 

      Cain, Michelle; Jenkins, Stuart; Allen, Myles R.; Lynch, John; Frame, David J.; MacEy, Adrian H.; Peters, Glen Philip (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      Meeting the Paris Agreement temperature goal necessitates limiting methane (CH4)-induced warming, in addition to achieving net-zero or (net-negative) carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In our model, for the median 1.5°C ...
    • Methane's Solar Radiative Forcing 

      Byrom, Rachael; Shine, K.P. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Methane (CH4) has significant absorption bands at wavelengths of 1.7, 2.3, 3.3 and 7.6 μm which absorb incoming solar ‘shortwave’ (SW) radiation and contribute to radiative forcing (RF). A comprehensive quantification of ...
    • Methodologies of health impact assessment as part of an integrated approach to reduce effects of air pollution 

      Aunan, Kristin; Seip, Hans Martin (CICERO Working Paper;1995:07, Working paper, 1995)
      Quantification of average frequencies of health effects on a population level is an essential part of an integrated assessment of pollution effects. Epidemiological studies seem to provide the best basis for such estimates. ...
    • Metodar for å samanlikne utslepp av klimagassar: GWP-konseptet og alternative metodar 

      Sygna, Linda; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn (CICERO Working Paper;1999:11, Working paper, 1999)
      I denne publikasjonen har vi søkt å presentere ulike metodar for å samanlikne effekten av utslepp av klimagassar. Det globale oppvarmingspotensialet (GWP) er utvikla av FN sitt klimapanel (IPCC) til dette formålet. Dette ...
    • Metodikk for framstilling av klimaeffekt på kort og lang sikt 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje Koren (CICERO Report;2021:01, Report, 2021-01)
      CICERO Senter for klimaforskning har på oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet utviklet og illustrert metodikk for framstilling av klimaeffekt på kort og lang sikt. Vi har vurdert klimaeffekt på to forskjellige måter, med vektfaktorer ...
    • Metodikk for framstilling av klimaeffekt på kort og lang sikt 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje Koren (CICERO Report, Research report, 2021)
      CICERO Senter for klimaforskning har på oppdrag fra Miljødirektoratet utviklet og illustrert metodikk for framstilling av klimaeffekt på kort og lang sikt. Vi har vurdert klimaeffekt på to forskjellige måter, med vektfaktorer ...
    • Metrics for linking emissions of gases and aerosols to global precipitation changes 

      Shine, Keith P.; Allan, R.P.; Collins, William J.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015)
      Recent advances in understanding have made it possible to relate global precipitation changes directly to emissions of particular gases and aerosols that influence climate. Using these advances, new indices are developed ...
    • Missing the forest for the trees. A review of climate risk data providers as part of the Sustainable Edge project 

      Alnes, Kristina; Berg, Alexander O.; Schiessl, Bernhard (CICERO Report;2019:16, Report, 2019-10)
      The financial sector is beginning to integrate climate into their business models and demanding climate related information tailored to financial decision making. A growing market of services and information sources exist ...
    • Mobile source pollution control in the United States and China 

      Menz, Fredric C. (CICERO Working Paper;2002:01, Working paper, 2002)
      This paper reviews policies for the control of mobile source pollution and their potential application in China. The first section of the paper reviews the U.S. experience with mobile source pollution control since ...
    • Mobility in Blue-Green Spaces Does Not Predict COVID-19 Transmission: A Global Analysis 

      Venter, Zander; Sadilek, Adam; Stanton, Charlotte; Barton, David Nicholas; Aunan, Kristin; Chowdhury, Sourangsu; Schneider, Aaron; Iacus, Stefano Maria (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Mobility restrictions during the COVID-19 pandemic ostensibly prevented the public from transmitting the disease in public places, but they also hampered outdoor recreation, despite the importance of blue-green spaces ...
    • Mobilizing Adaptation Finance in Developing Countries 

      Pillay, Kamleshan; Aakre, Stine; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;2017:02, Research report, 2017-03-23)
      More funding is needed for adaptation to climate change, particularly in developing countries. Mobilization of adaptation finance is difficult due to uncertainties related to frequency, severity and geographical spread of ...
    • Model evaluation of short-lived climate forcers for the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme: a multi-species, multi-model study 

      Whaley, Cynthia; Mahmood, Rashed; von Salzen, Knut; Winter, Barbara; Eckhardt, Sabine; Arnold, Stephen R.; Beagley, Stephen; Becagli, Silvia; Chien, Rong-You; Christensen, Jesper; Damani, Sujay Manish; Dong, Xinyi; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Evangeliou, Nikolaos; Faluvegi, Gregory; Flanner, Mark G.; Fu, Joshua S.; Gauss, Michael; Giardi, Fabio; Gong, Wanmin; Hjorth, Jens Liengaard; Huang, Lin; Im, Ulas; Kanaya, Yugo; Srinath, Krishnan; Klimont, Zbigniew; Kuhn, Thomas; Langner, Joakim; Law, Kathy S.; Marelle, Louis; Massling, Andreas; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Onishi, Tatsuo; Oshima, Naga; Peng, Yiran; Plummer, David A.; Pozzoli, Luca; Popovicheva, Olga; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Sand, Maria; Saunders, Laura; Schmale, Julia; Sharma, Sangeeta; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Skov, Henrik; Taketani, Fumikazu; Thomas, Manu Anna; Traversi, Rita; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Tsyro, Svetlana; Turnock, Steven T; Vitale, Vito; Walker, Kaley A.; Wang, Minqi; Watson-Parris, Duncan; Weiss-Gibbons, Tahya (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      While carbon dioxide is the main cause for global warming, modeling short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) such as methane, ozone, and particles in the Arctic allows us to simulate near-term climate and health impacts for a ...
    • Model Validity and Transferability Informing Behavioral Energy Policies 

      Kontogianni, Areti; Damigos, Dimitris; Skourtos, Michail; Tourkolias, Christos; Denny, Eleanor; Galarraga, Ibon; Kallbekken, Steffen; Lakic, Edin (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      A number of microeconomic choice models are currently applied to demonstrate systematic biases in energy consumer behavior. The models highlight the hidden potential of energy savings from policies that target the so-called ...
    • Modeling Global Carbon Costs of Plant Nitrogen and Phosphorus Acquisition 

      Braghiere, R.K.; Fisher, J.B.; Allen, K.; Brzostek, E.; Shi, M.; Yang, X.; Ricciuto, D.M.; Fisher, Rosie; Zhu, Q.; Phillips, R.P. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      Most Earth system models (ESMs) do not explicitly represent the carbon (C) costs of plant nutrient acquisition, which leads to uncertainty in predictions of the current and future constraints to the land C sink. We integrate ...
    • Modeling the Joint Effects of Vegetation Characteristics and Soil Properties on Ecosystem Dynamics in a Panama Tropical Forest 

      Cheng, Yanyan; Leung, L. Ruby; Huang, Maoyi; Koven, Charles; Detto, Matteo; Knox, Ryan; Bisht, Gautam; Bretfeld, Mario; Fisher, Rosie (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      In tropical forests, both vegetation characteristics and soil properties are important not only for controlling energy, water, and gas exchanges directly but also determining the competition among species, successional ...
    • Modelling the international climate change negotiations: A non-technical outline of model architecture 

      Underdal, Arild (CICERO Working Paper;1997:08, Working paper, 1997)
      One of CICERO’s current projects – undertaken in collaboration with the Fridtjof Nansen Institute – aims at developing a model enabling us (1) to explore systematically the political feasibility of alternative policy ...