• Reaching peak emissions 

      Jackson, Robert B; Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen Philip; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015)
      Rapid growth in global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry ceased in the past two years, despite continued economic growth. Decreased coal use in China was largely responsible, coupled with slower global growth ...
    • Recommendations for diagnosing effective radiative forcing from climate models for CMIP6 

      Forster, Piers M.; Richardson, T.; Maycock, A. C.; Smith, C. J.; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Andrews, T.; Pincus, R.; Schulz, Michael (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      The usefulness of previous Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) exercises has been hampered by a lack of radiative forcing information. This has made it difficult to understand reasons for differences between model ...
    • Recruitment, Stabilization and Defection; Exploring Car Sharing Pathways of Young Urban Households 

      Julsrud, Tom Erik; George, Cyriac Manapurathu (Chapter, 2020)
    • Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China 

      Liu, Z; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen Philip; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015)
      early three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China1, 2. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large ...
    • Reduced Complexity Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2: Synthesizing Earth System Knowledge for Probabilistic Climate Projections 

      Nicholls, Z.; Meinshausen, Malte; Lewis, J.; Corradi, M. Rojas; Dorheim, K.; Gasser, Thomas; Gieseke, R.; Hope, A.P.; Leach, N.J.; McBride, L.A.; Quilcaille, Y.; Rogelj, Joeri; Salawitch, Ross J.; Samset, B.H.; Sandstad, Marit; Shiklomanov, A.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Smith, Christopher J.; Smith, Steven J.; Su, X.; Tsutsui, J.; Vega-Westhoff, B.; Woodard, D.L. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Over the last decades, climate science has evolved rapidly across multiple expert domains. Our best tools to capture state-of-the-art knowledge in an internally self-consistent modeling framework are the increasingly complex ...
    • Reduced damage to health and environment from energy saving: A methodology for integrated assessment applied to a case study in Hungary 

      Aunan, Kristin (CICERO Working Paper;1998:13, Working paper, 1998)
      Environmental problems have different characteristics in terms of space and time. Noise, for instance, affects only those being close to the source, and the problem is instantly solved for these if the source is removed. ...
    • Reducing the aerosol forcing uncertainty using observational constraints on warm rain processes 

      Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Nam, Christine; Salzmann, Marc; Kretzschmar, Jan; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Ma, Po-Lun; Myhre, Gunnar; Neubauer, David; Stier, Philip; Suzuki, Kentaroh; Wang, Minghuai; Quaas, Johannes (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Global climate models (GCMs) disagree with other lines of evidence on the rapid adjustments of cloud cover and liquid water path to anthropogenic aerosols. Attempts to use observations to constrain the parameterizations ...
    • Reducing uncertainties in decadal variability of the global carbon budget with multiple datasets 

      Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Yilong; Peng, Shushi; Broquet, Grégoire; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Cooper, Leila; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Le Quéré, Corinne; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peters, Glen Philip; Piao, Shilong; Pongratz, Julia (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      Conventional calculations of the global carbon budget infer the land sink as a residual between emissions, atmospheric accumulation, and the ocean sink. Thus, the land sink accumulates the errors from the other flux terms ...
    • Redusert oljeutvinning som klimatiltak: Faglige og politiske perspektiver 

      Lahn, Bård (CICERO Policy Note;2017:01, Working paper, 2017)
      Å regulere produksjonen av fossile energiressurser har fått økt oppmerksomhet i klimadebatten de siste årene. Mens klimapolitikken tradisjonelt har vært orientert mot å begrense etterspørselen etter kull, olje og gass, er ...
    • Referansebane for klimagassutslipp i Oslo fram til 2030 

      Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Romundstad, Reidun Marie; Madslien, Anne (CICERO Report;2022:06, Report, 2022-03)
      CICERO Senter for klimaforskning og Transportøkonomisk institutt (TØI) har utarbeidet en referansebane for klimagassutslipp i Oslo kommune fram til 2030 og en beregningsmodell for videre analyser av utslipp og mulige ...
    • Referansebane og framskrivning for Oslos klimagassutslipp mot 2030 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Madslien, Anne (CICERO Report;2018:12, Research report, 2018-09-07)
      Klimaetaten i Oslo kommune har gitt CICERO og TØI i oppdrag om å utarbeide en referansebane for Oslos klimagassutslipp for perioden 2017 til 2030. Dette arbeidet er basert på best tilgjengelig kunnskap om de driverne som ...
    • Referansebane og framskrivning for Oslos klimagassutslipp mot 2030 - Revisjon mai 2019 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Madslien, Anne (CICERO Report;2019:08, Report, 2019-06)
      Klimaetaten i Oslo kommune gav i 2018 CICERO og TØI i oppdrag om å utarbeide en referansebane for Oslos klimagassutslipp for perioden 2017 til 2030. I 2019 fikk vi et nytt oppdrag for å oppdatere denne rapporten basert på ...
    • Reforestation and climate change mitigation: A background study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia 

      Gan, Lin; Næss, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O'Brien, Karen (CICERO Report;1998:03, Research report, 1998)
      This paper discusses the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper ...
    • Regime lessons from ocean dumping of radioactive waste 

      Ringius, Lasse (CICERO Working Paper;1994:09, Working paper, 1994)
      Standard explanations for international environmental regime change do not account for the 1993 ban by states on ocean dumping of radioactive waste. This significant development was in large part caused by a trans-national ...
    • The Regional Aerosol Model Intercomparison Project (RAMIP) 

      Wilcox, Laura J.; Allen, Robert J.; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Bollasina, Massimo A.; Griffiths, Paul T.; Keeble, James; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Makkonen, Risto; Merikanto, Joonas; O'Donnell, Declan; Paynter, David J.; Persad, Geeta G.; Rumbold, Steven T.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Undorf, Sabine; Westervelt, Daniel M. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2023)
      Changes in anthropogenic aerosol emissions have strongly contributed to global and regional trends in temperature, precipitation, and other climate characteristics and have been one of the dominant drivers of decadal trends ...
    • Regional temperature change potentials for short-lived climate forcers based on radiative forcing from multiple models 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Collins, William J (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      We calculate the absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP) of various short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) based on detailed radiative forcing (RF) calculations from four different models. The temperature response ...
    • Relationships between physical effects of climate change on forests and economic impacts by world region 

      Aaheim, H. Asbjørn; Wei, Taoyuan (CICERO Report;2020:02, Report, 2020-05)
      This study projects the macroeconomic consequences of impacts of climate change on forests by world regions under the three Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 until 2100. It is based on ...
    • Reply to: Uncertainty in near-term temperature evolution must not obscure assessments of climate mitigation benefits 

      Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Lund, Marianne Tronstad (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2022)
      In response to our recent paper1 (hereafter SFL20) concerning the relation between natural variability in the climate system and the time to detect a response to emissions mitigation, Lanson et al.2 (hereafter L22) call ...
    • The Representation of Sea Salt Aerosols and Their Role in Polar Climate Within CMIP6 

      Lapere, Rémy; Thomas, Jennie L.; Marelle, Louis; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Frey, Markus M.; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Makkonen, Risto; Ranjithkumar, Ananth; Salter, Matthew E.; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Schulz, Michael; Sogacheva, Larisa; Yang, Xin; Zieger, Paul (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2023)
      Natural aerosols and their interactions with clouds remain an important uncertainty within climate models, especially at the poles. Here, we study the behavior of sea salt aerosols (SSaer) in the Arctic and Antarctic within ...
    • Representing storylines with causal networks to support decision making: Framework and example 

      Kunimitsu, Taro; Baldissera Pacchetti, Marina; Ciullo, Alessio; Sillmann, Jana; Shepherd, Theodore G.; Taner, Mehmet Ümit; van den Hurk, Bart (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2023)
      Physical climate storylines, which are physically self-consistent unfoldings of events or pathways, have been powerful tools in understanding regional climate impacts. We show how embedding physical climate storylines into ...