Now showing items 94-113 of 348

    • Earlier emergence of a temperature response to mitigation by filtering annual variability 

      Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Zhou, C.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Marotzke, J.; Zelinka, M.D. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      The rate of global surface warming is crucial for tracking progress towards global climate targets, but is strongly influenced by interannual-to-decadal variability, which precludes rapid detection of the temperature ...
    • Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0-diagnostics for extreme events, regional and impact evaluation, and analysis of Earth system models in CMIP 

      Weigel, Katja; Bock, Lisa; Gier, Bettina K.; Lauer, Axel; Righi, Mattia; Schlund, Manuel; Adeniyi, Kemisola; Andela, Bouwe; Arnone, Enrico; Berg, Peter; Caron, Louis-Philippe; Cionni, Irene; Corti, Susanna; Drost, Niels; Hunter, Alasdair; Lledó, Llorenç; Mohr, Christian Wilhelm; Paçal, Aytaç; Pérez-Zanón, Núria; Predoi, Valeriu; Sandstad, Marit; Sillmann, Jana; Sterl, Andreas; Vegas-Regidor, Javier; Von Hardenberg, Jost; Eyring, Veronika (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      This paper complements a series of now four publications that document the release of the Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) v2.0. It describes new diagnostics on the hydrological cycle, extreme events, impact ...
    • Economic and Environmental Benefits from Municipal Solid Waste Recycling in the Murmansk Region 

      Orlov, Anton; Klyuchnikova, Elene; Korppoo, Anna (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Most municipal solid waste (MSW) in Russia is disposed of in landfills, and only a relatively small fraction is recycled. The landfilling of waste leads to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and air and groundwater pollution. ...
    • Economic costs of heat-induced reductions in worker productivity due to global warming 

      Orlov, Anton; Sillmann, Jana; Aunan, Kristin; Kjellström, Tord E.; Aaheim, Hans Asbjørn (Journal article, 2020)
      We assess economic costs of heat-induced reductions in worker productivity at global scale under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. Losses in worker productivity are calculated by using an empirically estimated epidemiological exposure-response ...
    • The effect of rapid adjustments to halocarbons and N2O on radiative forcing 

      Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Kramer, Ryan J.; Shine, Keith P.; Andrews, Timothy; Faluvegi, Greg; Kasoar, Matthew; Kirkevåg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Rapid adjustments occur after initial perturbation of an external climate driver (e.g., CO2) and involve changes in, e.g. atmospheric temperature, water vapour and clouds, independent of sea surface temperature changes. ...
    • Effectiveness of integrated low-carbon technologies: Evidence from a pilot agricultural experiment in Shanghai 

      Fan, Chunzeng; Wei, Taoyuan (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      Purpose – Constructing a low-carbon agriculture park is considered an effective means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries. This study explores the effectiveness of integrated low-carbon agricultural ...
    • Electricity consumption: should there be a limit? Implications of people’s attitudes for the forming of sustainable energy policies 

      Westskog, Hege; Winther, Tanja (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014)
      The aim of this paper is to examine people’s attitudes towards electricity and electricity consumption within the Norwegian market context. The empirical material is based on 18 in-depth interviews and eight focus group ...
    • Elemental carbon measurements in European Arctic snow packs 

      Forsström, S.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Ström, Johan; Pedersen, CA; Hudson, S.R.; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Lihavainen, H.; Godtliebsen, Fred; Gerland, Sebastian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      [1] Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing particles deposited on snow and ice are known to perturb the surface radiative balance. There are few published observations of the concentration of these particles in the ...
    • Elevation dependent precipitation and temperature changes over Indian Himalayan region 

      Dimri, A.P.; Palazzi, E.; Daloz, Anne Sophie (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2022)
      Various studies reported an elevation dependent precipitation and temperature changes in mountainous regions of the world including the Himalayas. Various mechanisms are proposed to link the possible dependence of the ...
    • Emerging reporting and verification needs under the Paris Agreement: How can the research community effectively contribute? 

      Perugini, Lucia; Pellis, Guido; Grassi, Giacomo; Ciais, Philippe; Dolman, Han; House, Jo; Peters, Glen Philip; Smith, Pete; Günther, Dirk; Peylin, Philippe (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories represent the link between national and international political actions on climate change, and climate and environmental sciences. Inventory agencies need to include, in national ...
    • Emission metrics for quantifying regional climate impacts of aviation 

      Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Bock, Lisa; Burkhardt, Ulrike; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
    • Empirical estimates of regional carbon budgets imply reduced global soil heterotrophic respiration 

      Ciais, Philippe; Yao, Yitong; Gasser, Thomas; Baccini, Alessandro; Wang, Yilong; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peng, Shushi; Bastos, Ana; Li, Wei; Raymond, Peter A; Canadell, Josep G.; Peters, Glen Philip; Andres, Robert J.; Chang, Jinfeng; Yue, Chao; Dolman, A. Johannes; Haverd, Vanessa; Hartmann, Jens; Laruelle, Goulven; Konings, Alexandra G; King, Anthony W; Liu, Yi; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Maignan, Fabienne; Patra, Prabir K.; Peregon, Anna; Regnier, Pierre; Pongratz, Julia; Poulter, Ben; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Valentini, Riccardo; Wang, Rong; Broquet, Grégoire; Yin, Yi; Zscheischler, Jakob; Guenet, Bertrand; Goll, Daniel S.; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Chunjing; Zhu, Dan (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Resolving regional carbon budgets is critical for informing land-based mitigation policy. For nine regions covering nearly the whole globe, we collected inventory estimates of carbon-stock changes complemented by satellite ...
    • An Endogenous Emission Cap Produces a Green Paradox 

      Gerlagh, Reyer; Heijmans, Roweno; Rosendahl, Knut Einar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      The European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is complemented by a Market Stability Reserve (MSR). After a major revision of the EU ETS in 2018, the MSR effectively makes the supply of allowances responsive to ...
    • An Endogenous Emission Cap Produces a Green Paradox 

      Gerlagh, Reyer; Heijmans, Roweno; Rosendahl, Knut Einar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      The European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is complemented by a Market Stability Reserve (MSR). After a major revision of the EU ETS in 2018, the MSR effectively makes the supply of allowances responsive to ...
    • Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Agreements: An Experimental Analysis 

      McEvoy, DM; Cherry, Todd; Stranlund, JK (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2015)
      Almost all international environmental treaties require a minimum number of countries to ratify the treaty before it enters into force. Despite the wide-spread use of this mechanism, little is known about its effectiveness ...
    • Energy Budget Constraints on the Time History of Aerosol Forcing and Climate Sensitivity 

      Smith, Christopher J.; Harris, Glen R.; Palmer, Matthew D.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Collins, William J.; Myhre, Gunnar; Schulz, Michael; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Ringer, Mark; Storelvmo, Trude; Forster, Piers M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      An observationally constrained time series of historical aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF) from 1750 to 2019 is developed in this study. We find that the time history of aerosol ERFs diagnosed in CMIP6 models ...
    • Energy Efficiency: What Has Research Delivered in the Last 40 Years? 

      Saunders, Harry D.; Roy, Joyashree; Azevedo, Inês M.L.; Chakravarty, Debalina; Dasgupta, Shyamasree; De La Rue Du Can, Stephane; Druckman, Angela; Fouquet, Roger; Grubb, Michael; Lin, Boqiang; Lowe, Robert; Madlener, Reinhard; McCoy, Daire M.; Mundaca, Luis; Oreszczyn, Tadj; Sorrell, Steven; Stern, David; Tanaka, Kanako; Wei, Taoyuan (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
    • Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies 

      Glomsrød, Solveig; Wei, Taoyuan; Mideksa, Torben Kenea; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2014)
      Since the Fukushima disaster in Japan in March 2011, safety concerns have escalated and policies toward nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the upward pressure on ...
    • Energy Politics and Gender 

      Standal, Karina; Winther, Tanja; Danielsen, Katrine (Chapter, 2018)
      Policy makers and scholars often assume gender to be irrelevant in energy politics. However, an increasing body of scholarship and development policies has focused on how gender discrimination has negative effects on women’s ...
    • Energy security concerns versus market harmony: The Europeanisation of capacity mechanisms 

      Leiren, Merethe Dotterud; Szulecki, Kacper; Rayner, Tim; Banet, Catherine (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The impact of renewables on the energy markets–falling wholesale electricity prices and lower investment stability–are apparently creating a shortage of energy project financing, which in future could lead to power supply ...