Now showing items 359-378 of 516

    • Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations 

      Shindell, D.T.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P.J.; Lee, Y.H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W.J.; Conley, A.J.; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Easter, R.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, X.; Myhre, Gunnar; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.T.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, J.-H.; Lo, F. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of ...
    • Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations 

      Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N; Chin, M; Diehl, T; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J; Ghan, SJ; Hauglustaine, D; Iversen, Trond; Kinne, S; Kirkevåg, A; Lamarque, J. F.; Lin, G; Liu, X.; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Luo, G; Ma, X; van Noije, T; Penner, JE; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Stier, P; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K; Wang, P.; Wang, Z; Xu, L.; Yu, H; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models ...
    • Rapport frå 8. Møte i Ad Hoc Group on the Berlin Mandate (AGBM), Bonn 22.-31. Oktober 1997 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Policy Note;1997:03, Working paper, 1997)
    • Reaching peak emissions 

      Jackson, Robert B; Canadell, Josep G.; Le Quéré, Corinne; Andrew, Robbie; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Peters, Glen Philip; Nakicenovic, Neboisa (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015)
      Rapid growth in global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industry ceased in the past two years, despite continued economic growth. Decreased coal use in China was largely responsible, coupled with slower global growth ...
    • Recommendations for diagnosing effective radiative forcing from climate models for CMIP6 

      Forster, Piers M.; Richardson, T.; Maycock, A. C.; Smith, C. J.; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Myhre, Gunnar; Andrews, T.; Pincus, R.; Schulz, Michael (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      The usefulness of previous Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) exercises has been hampered by a lack of radiative forcing information. This has made it difficult to understand reasons for differences between model ...
    • Reduced carbon emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion and cement production in China 

      Liu, Z; Guan, Dabo; Wei, Wei; Davis, Steven J; Ciais, Philippe; Bai, Jin; Peng, Shushi; Zhang, Qiang; Hubacek, Klaus; Marland, Gregg; Andres, Robert J; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Lin, Jintai; Zhao, Hongyan; Hong, Chaopeng; Boden, Thomas A; Feng, Kuishuang; Peters, Glen Philip; Xi, Fengming; Liu, Junguo; Li, Yuan; Zhao, Yu; Zeng, Ning; He, Kebin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015)
      early three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China1, 2. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large ...
    • Reduced damage to health and environment from energy saving: A methodology for integrated assessment applied to a case study in Hungary 

      Aunan, Kristin (CICERO Working Paper;1998:13, Working paper, 1998)
      Environmental problems have different characteristics in terms of space and time. Noise, for instance, affects only those being close to the source, and the problem is instantly solved for these if the source is removed. ...
    • Reducing uncertainties in decadal variability of the global carbon budget with multiple datasets 

      Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Yilong; Peng, Shushi; Broquet, Grégoire; Ballantyne, Ashley P.; Canadell, Josep G.; Cooper, Leila; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Le Quéré, Corinne; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peters, Glen Philip; Piao, Shilong; Pongratz, Julia (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      Conventional calculations of the global carbon budget infer the land sink as a residual between emissions, atmospheric accumulation, and the ocean sink. Thus, the land sink accumulates the errors from the other flux terms ...
    • Redusert oljeutvinning som klimatiltak: Faglige og politiske perspektiver 

      Lahn, Bård (CICERO Policy Note;2017:01, Policy note, 2017)
      Å regulere produksjonen av fossile energiressurser har fått økt oppmerksomhet i klimadebatten de siste årene. Mens klimapolitikken tradisjonelt har vært orientert mot å begrense etterspørselen etter kull, olje og gass, er ...
    • Referansebane og framskrivning for Oslos klimagassutslipp mot 2030 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Madslien, Anne (CICERO Report;2018:12, Research report, 2018-09-07)
      Klimaetaten i Oslo kommune har gitt CICERO og TØI i oppdrag om å utarbeide en referansebane for Oslos klimagassutslipp for perioden 2017 til 2030. Dette arbeidet er basert på best tilgjengelig kunnskap om de driverne som ...
    • Referansebane og framskrivning for Oslos klimagassutslipp mot 2030 - Revisjon mai 2019 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar; Madslien, Anne (CICERO Report;2019:08, Report, 2019-06)
      Klimaetaten i Oslo kommune gav i 2018 CICERO og TØI i oppdrag om å utarbeide en referansebane for Oslos klimagassutslipp for perioden 2017 til 2030. I 2019 fikk vi et nytt oppdrag for å oppdatere denne rapporten basert på ...
    • Reforestation and climate change mitigation: A background study for Joint Implementation in China and Indonesia 

      Gan, Lin; Næss, Lars Otto; Kasa, Sjur; O'Brien, Karen (CICERO Report;1998:03, Research report, 1998)
      This paper discusses the importance of institutional barriers in promoting reforestation as a means of mitigating global climate change. It is argued that cost-effective implementation of reforestation depends on proper ...
    • Regime lessons from ocean dumping of radioactive waste 

      Ringius, Lasse (CICERO Working Paper;1994:09, Working paper, 1994)
      Standard explanations for international environmental regime change do not account for the 1993 ban by states on ocean dumping of radioactive waste. This significant development was in large part caused by a trans-national ...
    • Regional temperature change potentials for short-lived climate forcers based on radiative forcing from multiple models 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P; Collins, William J (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2017)
      We calculate the absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP) of various short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) based on detailed radiative forcing (RF) calculations from four different models. The temperature response ...
    • Relationships between physical effects of climate change on forests and economic impacts by world region 

      Aaheim, H. Asbjørn; Wei, Taoyuan (CICERO Report;2020:02, Report, 2020-05)
      This study projects the macroeconomic consequences of impacts of climate change on forests by world regions under the three Representative Concentration Pathways, RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 until 2100. It is based on ...
    • Research priorities for negative emissions 

      Fuss, Sabine; Jones, Chris D.; Kraxner, Florian; Peters, Glen Philip; Smith, Pete; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef Peter; Canadell, Josep G.; Jackson, Robert B.; Milne, Jennifer L.; Moreira, José Roberto; Nakicenovic, Nebosja; Sharifi, Ayyoob; Yamagata, Yoshiki (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016)
      Carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere (CDR)—also known as 'negative emissions'—features prominently in most 2 °C scenarios and has been under increased scrutiny by scientists, citizens, and policymakers. Critics argue ...
    • Response to marine cloud brightening in a multi-model ensemble 

      Stjern, Camilla Weum; Muri, Helene; Ahlm, Lars; Boucher, Olivier; Cole, Jason N.S.; Ji, Duoying; Jones, Andy; Haywood, Jim M.; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Moore, John C.; Niemeier, Ulrike; Phipps, Steven J.; Schmidt, Hauke; Watanabe, Shingo; Kristjansson, Jon Egill (Journal article, 2017)
      Here we show results from Earth System Model simulations from the marine cloud brightening experiment G4cdnc of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). The nine contributing models prescribe a 50 % ...
    • Responses in tropospheric chemistry to changes in UV fluxes, temperatures and water vapour densities 

      Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Jonson, J. E.; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Isaksen, Ivar S. A. (CICERO Report;1994:05, Research report, 1994)
      A two-dimensional chemistry/transport model of the global troposphere is used to study the chemical response to i) increased UV-radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion and ii) increased temperatures and water vapour ...
    • Responses in tropospheric O3, OH and CH4 to changed emissions of important trace gases 

      Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Isaksen, Ivar S. A. (CICERO Report;1993:04, Research report, 1993)
      A two-dimensional (altitude vs. latitude) photochemical/transport model of the global troposphere is applied to study the effects of changed emissions of NOx, CH4, CO2 and NMHC on the levels of O3, OH and CH4. On a mass ...