• US presidents and the failure to ratify multilateral environmental agreements 

      Bang, Guri; Hovi, Jon; Sprinz, Detlef F. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      Whereas the US President signed the Kyoto Protocol, the failure of the US Congress to ratify it seriously hampered subsequent international climate cooperation. This recent US trend, of signing environmental treaties but ...
    • Why the United States did not become a party to the Kyoto Protocol: German, Norwegian, and US perspectives 

      Hovi, Jon; Sprinz, Detlef F.; Bang, Guri (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      According to two-level game theory, negotiators tailor agreements at the international level to be ratifiable at the domestic level. This did not happen in the Kyoto negotiations, however, in the US case. We interviewed ...
    • Comparison of Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particle Data With Modelled Atmospheric Black Carbon Concentration and Deposition and Air Mass Sources in Northern Europe, 1850-2010 

      Ruppel, Meri; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Grythe, Henrik; Rose, Neil L.; Weckström, Jan; Korhola, Atte (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
    • Consumption-based GHG emission accounting: a UK case study 

      Barrett, John; Peters, Glen Philip; Wiedmann, Thomas; Scott, Kate; Lenzen, Manfred; Roelich, Katy; Le Quéré, Corinne (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Global GHG emissions continue to rise, with nearly a quarter of it due to trade that is not currently captured within global climate policy. In the context of current trade patterns and limited global cooperation on climate ...
    • Climate change, risk management and the end of Nomadic pastoralism 

      Næss, Marius Warg (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Mobility has been argued to be the single factor explaining why some pastoralists do relatively well during extreme climatic events, while others do not, because mobility works by taking advantage of the spatial and temporal ...
    • Climate warming feedback from mountain birch forest expansion: Reduced albedo dominates carbon uptake 

      de Wit, Heleen; Bryn, Anders; Hofgaard, Annika; Karstensen, Jonas; Kvalevåg, Maria Malene; Peters, Glen Philip (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      Expanding high elevation and high latitude forest has contrasting climate feedbacks through carbon sequestration (cooling) and reduced surface reflectance (warming), which are yet poorly quantified. Here, we present an ...
    • The Compensation Fund for Climate Impacts 

      Sprinz, Detlef F.; Bünau, Steffen von (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Climate change is very likely to lead to undesirable climate impacts. How to compensate for such negative impacts at the international level has, hitherto, received little attention. This article reviews the most frequently ...
    • Tropospheric ozone changes, radiative forcing and attribution to emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) 

      Stevenson, D.S.; Young, P.J.; Naik, V.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Shindell, D.T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Myhre, Gunnar; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Folberth, G.A.; Rumbold, S.T.; Collins, W.J.; MacKenzie, I.A.; Doherty, R.M.; Zeng, G.; van Noije, T.P.C; Strunk, A.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Plummer, D.A.; Strode, S.A.; Horowitz, L.; Lee, Y.H.; Szopa, S.; Sudo, K.; Nagashima, T.; Josse, B.; Cionni, I.; Righi, M.; Eyring, V.; Conley, A.; Bowman, K.W.; Wild, O.; Archibald, A. T. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      Ozone (O3) from 17 atmospheric chemistry models taking part in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) has been used to calculate tropospheric ozone radiative forcings (RFs). All models ...
    • Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations 

      Shindell, D.T.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M.; Jiao, C.; Chin, M.; Young, P.J.; Lee, Y.H.; Rotstayn, L.; Mahowald, N.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W.J.; Conley, A.J.; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Easter, R.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, X.; Myhre, Gunnar; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.T.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, J.-H.; Lo, F. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of ...
    • A two-track CDM: improved incentives for sustainable development and offset production 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Shrivastava, Manish K.; Pandey, Nimisha; Tørnblad, Silje Hexeberg (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been criticized in the literature for encouraging a focus on offset production (OP) at the expense of achieving or encouraging sustainable development (SD). It is argued that one ...
    • Radiative forcing of the direct aerosol effect from AeroCom Phase II simulations 

      Myhre, Gunnar; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Schulz, M.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Bian, H.; Bellouin, N.; Chin, M; Diehl, T; Easter, R. C.; Feichter, J; Ghan, SJ; Hauglustaine, D; Iversen, Trond; Kinne, S; Kirkevåg, A; Lamarque, J. F.; Lin, G; Liu, X.; Lund, Marianne Tronstad; Luo, G; Ma, X; van Noije, T; Penner, JE; Rasch, P. J.; Ruiz, A.; Seland, Ø.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Stier, P; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, K; Wang, P.; Wang, Z; Xu, L.; Yu, H; Yu, F.; Yoon, J.-H.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      We report on the AeroCom Phase II direct aerosol effect (DAE) experiment where 16 detailed global aerosol models have been used to simulate the changes in the aerosol distribution over the industrial era. All 16 models ...
    • Elemental carbon measurements in European Arctic snow packs 

      Forsström, S.; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Ström, Johan; Pedersen, CA; Hudson, S.R.; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Lihavainen, H.; Godtliebsen, Fred; Gerland, Sebastian (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      [1] Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing particles deposited on snow and ice are known to perturb the surface radiative balance. There are few published observations of the concentration of these particles in the ...
    • Global premature mortality due to anthropogenic outdoor air pollution and the contribution of past climate change 

      Silva, Raquel A.; West, J. Jason; Zhang, Yuqiang; Anenberg, Susan C.; Lamarque, Jean-François; Shindell, Drew T.; Collins, William J.; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Faluvegi, Greg; Folberth, Gerd; Horowitz, Larry W.; Nagashima, Tatasuya; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, Steven; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Sudo, Kengo; Takemura, Toshihiko; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Cionni, Irene; Doherty, Ruth M.; Eyring, Veronika; Josse, Béatrice; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Plummer, David; Righi, Mattia; Stevenson, David S.; Strode, Sarah; Szopa, Sophie; Zeng, Guang (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
    • Comparing approaches to valuing sectoral net investments 

      Wei, Taoyuan (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      In the literature of comprehensive national accounts, national net investments are used to indicate dynamic welfare improvement in an economy. A well-known approach associates national net investments with the shadow value ...
    • Preindustrial to present-day changes in tropospheric hydroxyl radical and methane lifetime from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) 

      Naik, V; Voulgarakis, A; Fiore, AM; Horowitz, LW; Lamarque, JF; Lin, M; Prather, MJ; Young, PJ; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, PJ; Cionni, I; Collins, WJ; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Doherty, R; Eyring, V; Faluvegi, G; Folberth, GA; Josse, B; Lee, YH; MacKenzie, IA; Nagashima, T; van Noije, TPC; Plummer, DA; Righi, M; Rumbold, ST; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Shindell, DT; Stevenson, DS; Strode, S; Sudo, K; Szopa, S; Zeng, G (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      We have analysed time-slice simulations from 17 global models, participating in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), to explore changes in present-day (2000) hydroxyl radical (OH) ...
    • A multi-method evaluation of the potential for using the electricity bill to encourage energy savings in Norwegian households 

      Westskog, Hege; Sælen, Håkon (Journal article, 2013)
      This study explores whether the electricity bill can be used as a medium to deliver information that encourages energy conservation in Norwegian households. Two main categories of information were tested: social comparative ...
    • Upgrading to cleaner household stoves and reducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among women in rural China — A cost-benefit analysis 

      Aunan, Kristin; Alnes, Line Winther Hansen; Berger, Janne; Dong, Zeqin; Ma, Liying; Staff, Heidi Elisabeth; Vennemo, Haakon; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhan, Wei (Journal article, 2013)
    • Evaluation of preindustrial to present-day black carbon and its albedo forcing from Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) 

      Lee, Y.H.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Flanner, M.G.; Jiao, C.; Shindell, D.T.; Berntsen, Terje Koren; Bisiaux, M.M.; Cao, J.; Collins, W.J.; Curran, M.; Edwards, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, S.; Horowitz, L.W.; McConnell, J.R.; Ming, J.; Myhre, Gunnar; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.T.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Thevenon, F.; Xu, B.; Yoon, J.-H. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      As part of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP), we evaluate the historical black carbon (BC) aerosols simulated by 8 ACCMIP models against observations including 12 ice core records, ...
    • Pre-industrial to end 21st century projections of tropospheric ozone from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) 

      Young, P.J.; Archibald, A. T.; Bowman, K. W.; Lamarque, J. F.; Naik, V.; Stevenson, DS; Tilmes, S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Wild, O.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip J.; Cionni, Irene; Collins, WJ; Dalsøren, Stig Bjørløw; Doherty, RM; Eyring, V; Faluvegi, G; Horowitz, LW; Josse, B.; Lee, YH; MacKenzie, IA; Nagashima, T; Plummer, D. A.; Righi, M.; Rumbold, Steven T.; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Shindell, DT; Strode, S.A.; Sudo, K; Szopa, S; Zeng, Guangming (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      Present day tropospheric ozone and its changes between 1850 and 2100 are considered, analysing 15 global models that participated in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The ensemble ...
    • Sustainable Passenger Transport: Back to Brundtland 

      Holden, Erling; Linnerud, Kristin; Banister, David (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      We argue that there is no clear definition of the concept sustainable passenger transport to help guide politicians in solving challenges at the global or regional level. Rather, the use of the concept has to an increasing ...