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dc.contributor.authorFriedlingstein, Pierre
dc.contributor.authorO'Sullivan, Michael
dc.contributor.authorJones, Matthew W.
dc.contributor.authorAndrew, Robbie
dc.contributor.authorHauck, Judith
dc.contributor.authorOlsen, Are
dc.contributor.authorPeters, Glen Philip
dc.contributor.authorPeters, Wouter
dc.contributor.authorPongratz, Julia
dc.contributor.authorSitch, Stephen
dc.contributor.authorLe Quéré, Corinne
dc.contributor.authorCanadell, Josep G.
dc.contributor.authorCiais, Philippe
dc.contributor.authorJackson, Robert B.
dc.contributor.authorAlin, Simone
dc.contributor.authorAragão, Luiz E.O.C.
dc.contributor.authorArneth, Almut
dc.contributor.authorArora, Vivek K.
dc.contributor.authorBates, Nicholas R.
dc.contributor.authorBecker, Meike
dc.contributor.authorBenoit-Cattin, Alice
dc.contributor.authorBittig, Henry C.
dc.contributor.authorBopp, Laurent
dc.contributor.authorBultan, Selma
dc.contributor.authorChandra, Naveen
dc.contributor.authorChevallier, Frédéric
dc.contributor.authorChini, Louise P.
dc.contributor.authorEvans, Wiley
dc.contributor.authorFlorentie, Liesbeth
dc.contributor.authorForster, Piers M.
dc.contributor.authorGasser, Thomas
dc.contributor.authorGehlen, Marion
dc.contributor.authorGilfillan, Dennis
dc.contributor.authorGkritzalis, Thanos
dc.contributor.authorGregor, Luke
dc.contributor.authorGruber, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorHarris, Ian
dc.contributor.authorHartung, Kerstin
dc.contributor.authorHaverd, Vanessa
dc.contributor.authorHoughton, Richard A.
dc.contributor.authorIlyina, Tatiana
dc.contributor.authorJain, Atul K.
dc.contributor.authorJoetzjer, Emilie
dc.contributor.authorKadono, Koji
dc.contributor.authorKato, Etsushi
dc.contributor.authorKitidis, Vassilis
dc.contributor.authorKorsbakken, Jan Ivar
dc.contributor.authorLandschützer, Peter
dc.contributor.authorLefevre, Nathalie
dc.contributor.authorLenton, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorLienert, Sebastian
dc.contributor.authorLiu, Zhu
dc.contributor.authorLombardozzi, Danica
dc.contributor.authorMarland, Gregg
dc.contributor.authorMetzl, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorMunro, David
dc.contributor.authorNabel, Julia E.M.S.
dc.contributor.authorNakaoka, Shin-Ichiro
dc.contributor.authorNiwa, Yosuke
dc.contributor.authorO'Brien, Kevin M.
dc.contributor.authorOno, Tsuneo
dc.contributor.authorPalmer, Paul I.
dc.contributor.authorPierrot, Denis
dc.contributor.authorPoulter, Ben
dc.contributor.authorResplandy, Laure
dc.contributor.authorRobertson, Eddy
dc.contributor.authorRödenbeck, Christian
dc.contributor.authorSchwinger, Jörg
dc.contributor.authorSéférian, Roland
dc.contributor.authorSkjelvan, Ingunn
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Adam J.P.
dc.contributor.authorSutton, Adrienne
dc.contributor.authorTanhua, Toste
dc.contributor.authorTans, Pieter P.
dc.contributor.authorTian, Hanqin
dc.contributor.authorTilbrook, Bronte
dc.contributor.authorVan Der Werf, Guido
dc.contributor.authorVuichard, Nicolas
dc.contributor.authorWalker, Anthony P.
dc.contributor.authorWanninkhof, Rik
dc.contributor.authorWatson, Andrew
dc.contributor.authorWillis, David
dc.contributor.authorWiltshire, Andy
dc.contributor.authorYuan, Wenping
dc.contributor.authorYue, Xu
dc.contributor.authorZaehle, Sönke
dc.identifier.citationEarth System Science Data. 2020, 12 (4), 3269-3340.en_US
dc.description.abstractAccurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodology to quantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and their uncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use change data and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) and terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) are estimated with global process models constrained by observations. The resulting carbon budget imbalance (BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and the estimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is a measure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carbon cycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the last decade available (2010–2019), EFOS was 9.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.4 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.6 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1. For the same decade, GATM was 5.1 ± 0.02 GtC yr−1 (2.4 ± 0.01 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN 2.5 ±  0.6 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 3.4 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1, with a budget imbalance BIM of −0.1 GtC yr−1 indicating a near balance between estimated sources and sinks over the last decade. For the year 2019 alone, the growth in EFOS was only about 0.1 % with fossil emissions increasing to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 excluding the cement carbonation sink (9.7 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.8 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, for total anthropogenic CO2 emissions of 11.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1 (42.2 ± 3.3 GtCO2). Also for 2019, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1 (2.5 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN was 2.6 ± 0.6 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 3.1 ± 1.2 GtC yr−1, with a BIM of 0.3 GtC. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 409.85 ± 0.1 ppm averaged over 2019. Preliminary data for 2020, accounting for the COVID-19-induced changes in emissions, suggest a decrease in EFOS relative to 2019 of about −7 % (median estimate) based on individual estimates from four studies of −6 %, −7 %, −7 % (−3 % to −11 %), and −13 %. Overall, the mean and trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistently estimated over the period 1959–2019, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr−1 persist for the representation of semi-decadal variability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from diverse approaches and observations shows (1) no consensus in the mean and trend in land-use change emissions over the last decade, (2) a persistent low agreement between the different methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northern extra-tropics, and (3) an apparent discrepancy between the different methods for the ocean sink outside the tropics, particularly in the Southern Ocean. This living data update documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new global carbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cycle compared with previous publications of this data set (Friedlingstein et al., 2019; Le Quéré et al., 2018b, a, 2016, 2015b, a, 2014, 2013). The data presented in this work are available at (Friedlingstein et al., 2020).en_US
dc.publisherCopernicus publicationsen_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleGlobal Carbon Budget 2020en_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.source.journalEarth System Science Dataen_US
dc.relation.projectNotur/NorStore: ns2980ken_US
dc.relation.projectNotur/NorStore: nn2980ken_US
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 270061en_US

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