A review of country studies on climate change
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- CICERO Reports 
Country studies are important instruments for determining national climate policies and adding to the global knowledge on climate issues. They are, however, also the basis for examining the obligations of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), and for developing and assessing projects eligible for financing by the Global Environmental Facility (CEF). It is important that these country studies are comparable, in order to make the CEF efficient and able to compare and choose between projects built on country studies, in terms of their ecological and economic efficiency. The term "country study" should in our context be understood as an official national study on climate change which could include parts or all of the following areas: inventories of sources and sinks; impacts and vulnerability assessments; and response strategies and options, both on adaptation and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement. This report is prepared for the Administrator of the Global Environmental Facility (CEF), as a basis for discussion at a workshop organised by TERI in New Delhi in February 1993 on improving current approaches to country studies on climate change. It is also a contribution to the discussion within the Program for Measuring Incremental Costs in the Environment (PRINCE). The CEF commissioned CICERO on November 20,1992, to study experience to date, drawing explicitly upon those studies funded under CEF as well as experiences from other studies. As many of the studies are not yet completed, the focus of this review is on work plans, terms of reference and underlying assumptions and parameters used in their development. Ideally this work should also include interviews with the institutions involved in the preparation of such studies. The time available has, however, not permitted us to meet this objective. The terms of reference of the review states that the following elements should be considered, of which the area of costing exercises was highlighted: (i) an assessment of the level of activity currently and projected in the field of country studies on climate change, including an inventory of studies underway or planned; (ii) a review of the terms of reference for such studies including a review and assessment Of.. -their objectives; -methodological approaches; -parameters and assumptions used, including treatment of discount rate, costing assumptions, abatement targets etc.; -range of policy and investment/expenditure options to be reviewed and assessed; and -the extent to which local staff were involved in design and implementation of these studies; (iii) a review of the costs and staffing patterns Of such studies including the expertise required to undertake specific studies; and (iv) for those studies completed or underway, an assessment of their usefulness for government policy makers, especially in terms of providing a clear strategy for future activities including provisions and "expectations" laid down in the climate convention. The availability of completed studies and terms of reference for such studies was meagre. This review and assessment is, therefore, built on a very limited number of studies and terms of references, as listed in Annex 1. The time available for the preparation of this first draft has also limited our ability to study in depth all the issues mentioned above. We trust, however, that this exercise is a valuable start and may assist in the discussions and the development of more comparable methodologies for country studies. Contents : Chapter 1 is an overview of the current and planned activity in the field of country studies. Chapter 2 introduces important elements of inventories on sources and sinks of GHG, and focuses on these inventories in terms of methodological approaches, documentation and reporting. Chapter 3 is concerned with impact and vulnerability assessments, and starts with a discussion of the basis upon which impacts may be estimated. This is followed by an assessment of country studies in terms of physical and biological effects, and in terms of economy. Chapter 4 consists of four main parts: the theoretical platform for cost-benefit analyses related to climate change interventions; a discussion of a practical approach; an evaluation of country studies; and possible improvements of current approaches. Chapter 5 is a review of the costs and staffing patterns in the same studies. Chapter 6 is a discussion of the usefulness of country studies for government policy makers in their efforts to meet their obligations under the Framework Convention on Climate Change.