• A note on social versus private value of the Halten CO2 project 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;2007:08, Research report, 2007)
      This report compares the social and private value of the Halten CO2 project. This is a carbon capture and storage project in Mid-Norway comprising a gas-fired power plant, CO2 capture facilities, enhanced oil recovery, and ...
    • A review of country studies on climate change 

      Hanisch, Ted; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Isaksen, Ivar S. A.; Selrod, Rolf; Strand, Jon; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;1993:01, Research report, 1993)
      Country studies are important instruments for determining national climate policies and adding to the global knowledge on climate issues. They are, however, also the basis for examining the obligations of the Parties under ...
    • A two-track CDM: improved incentives for sustainable development and offset production 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Shrivastava, Manish K.; Pandey, Nimisha; Tørnblad, Silje Hexeberg (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2013)
      The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) has been criticized in the literature for encouraging a focus on offset production (OP) at the expense of achieving or encouraging sustainable development (SD). It is argued that one ...
    • An analysis of the Bonn agreement: Background information for evaluating business implications 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;2001:03, Research report, 2001)
      This report has been commissioned by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and written in August 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, ...
    • An evaluation of business implications of the Kyoto Protocol 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;2001:05, Research report, 2001)
      This report has been commissioned by Norsk Hydro ASA and written in November-December 2001. The aim of the report is to present and analyze the newest developments in the climate negotiations, particularly the seventh ...
    • An International Regulatory Framework for Risk Governance of Carbon Capture and Storage 

      Vajjhala, Shalini; Gode, Jenny; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Policy Note;2007:01, Policy note, 2007)
      CO2 capture and storage (CCS) in geological structures and its possible risks have been topics of extensive study in recent years. In contrast, the legal and regulatory structures necessary to support widespread capture ...
    • Analysis of EU member states' national allocation plans 

      Kolshus, Hans H.; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Working Paper;2005:02, Working paper, 2005)
      The European Union’s (EU) emissions trading scheme (ETS) started on 01 January 2005. The ETS covers CO2 emissions from large emitters in the power and heat generation industry and selected energy-intensive industrial ...
    • Broadening the climate regime: Design and feasibility of multi-stage climate agreements 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Bang, Guri; Kolshus, Hans H.; Vevatne, Jonas (CICERO Report;2005:02, Research report, 2005)
      To meet a climate target like maximum 2 ºC temperature increase by 2100, participation in efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases must be broader than that in the Kyoto Protocol. It will also require emission ...
    • Burden differentiation of greenhouse gas abatement: Criteria for evaluation and development of burden-sharing rules 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Ringius, Lasse (CICERO Working Paper;2000:01, Working paper, 2000)
      This article discusses nine criteria for evaluation of potential Burden Sharing Rules (BSRs) in climate policy agreements. Three of the criteria reflect fairness principles while six of them are operational requirements. ...
    • Burden differentiation of greenhouse gas abatement: Fairness principles and proposals 

      Ringius, Lasse; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Underdal, Arild (CICERO Working Paper;1999:13, Working paper, 1999)
      This report is the second working paper of the joint CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo) and ECN (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation) project ‘Rules for Burden Differentiation of ...
    • Business Models for Negative Emissions From Waste-to-Energy Plants 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Negative emissions of carbon dioxide will likely be needed to meet the <2°C warming above the pre-industrial level goal of the Paris Agreement. A major technology option is combining Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and ...
    • Can geological carbon storage be competitive? 

      Kallbekken, Steffen; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Working Paper;2004:05, Working paper, 2004)
      In this paper we review the literature on the costs and benefits of geological carbon storage and the estimates of greenhouse gas permit prices under the Kyoto Protocol commitment period and beyond. Combining these results ...
    • Can multi-criteria rules fairly distribute climate burdens? OECD results from three burden-sharing rules 

      Ringius, Lasse; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Holtsmark, Bjart (CICERO Working Paper;1998:06, Working paper, 1998)
      An important feature of the Protocol concluded in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997 is the differentiation of the climate targets of the industrialized countries. A more systematic approach to burden sharing than that leading ...
    • Can the Clean Development Mechanism attain both cost-effectiveness and sustainable development objectives? 

      Kolshus, Hans H.; Vevatne, Jonas; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Aunan, Kristin (CICERO Working Paper;2001:08, Working paper, 2001)
      The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), as defined in the Kyoto Protocol, has two objectives: to promote sustainable development in host developing countries, and to improve global cost-effectiveness by assisting developed ...
    • Carbon capture and storage projects under the climate policy regime: The case of Halten CO2 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Rypdal, Kristin; Tjernshaugen, Andreas (CICERO Report;2007:09, Research report, 2007)
      The report discusses institutional and policy issues associated with implementation of a planned carbon capture and storage plant in Mid-Norway under the international and national climate policy regime.
    • Carbon dioxide removal policy in the making: Assessing developments in 9 OECD cases 

      Schenuit, Felix; Colvin, Rebecca; Fridahl, Mathias; McMullin, Barry; Reisinger, Andy; Sanchez, Daniel L.; Smith, Stephen M.; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Wreford, Anita; Geden, Oliver (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Since the adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015, spurred by the 2018 IPCC Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, net zero emission targets have emerged as a new organizing principle of climate policy. In this context, ...
    • Case studies on climate change response policies and strategies of selected Annex I countries: Norway and Sweden 

      Aakre, Stine; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;2007:10, Research report, 2007)
    • CICERO MILESTONES 2018. A practitioner's perpective on the Green Bond Market 

      Alfsen, Knut H.; Alnes, Kristina; Berg, Alexander O.; Clapp, Christa; Dejonckheere, Sophie; Lund, Harald Francke; Schiessl, Bernhard; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;2018:11, Research report, 2018-09-07)
      Celebrating our 10th anniversary of providing second opinions, this report summarizes CICERO's approach and best practice application of our methodology. The green bond market has developed significantly since we assessed ...
    • CICERONE 1992-2 

      Hanisch, Ted; Underdal, Arild; Torvanger, Asbjørn; Hagem, Cathrine; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Selrod, Rolf (1992:2;, Others, 1992-12-11)
    • Climate change impacts on agricultural productivity in Norway 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Twena, Michelle; Romstad, Bård (CICERO Working Paper;2004:10, Working paper, 2004)
      Climate change is likely to affect agricultural productivity. In this study, a biophysical statistical model is used to analyze the relationship between yields of potatoes, barley, oats and wheat per decare, and temperature ...