Energy, climate and air pollution: What do we know and how should we act?
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- CICERO Policy Notes 
- To arrive at the most cost-effective strategies to reduce emissions an integrated approach is necessary. This implies to carry out detailed analyses of harmful effects on human health, materials and the ecosystems. - By using an integrated approach it may be possible to solve local problems and at the same time reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Mitigation of man-made climate changes may therefore turn out to be less expensive than most earlier studies indicate. - The value of a given environmental quality will vary over time and is likely to increase during economic growth. - The discount rate for investments in abatement should be different from that used for investments in production. During economic growth the former will in general be lower. - Legal, institutional, organizational and social constraints to effective control strategies must be considered. - Close interdisciplinary cooperation is necessary, e.g. between natural scientists, social scientists and economists.