• Wave transition in household energy use 

      Zhang, Rui; Wei, Taoyuan; Sun, Jie; Shi, Qinghua (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      The energy ladder model and energy stacking model have been proposed in the literature to describe the relations between income growth and transition of energy consumed by households. Both models are largely descriptive ...
    • Wealth-dependent and interdependent strategies in the Saami reindeer husbandry, Norway 

      Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Tveraa, Torkild (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      It has been argued that decisions in relation to choosing strategies to a large degree depend on an organism's state. For nomadic pastoralists, wealth is an important state variable since it has been argued that differences ...
    • What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II 

      Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven John; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Kokkola, Harri; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; van Noije, Twan P.C.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; von Salzen, Knut; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016)
      he vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one ...
    • When Does Informal Enforcement Work? 

      Aakre, Stine; Helland, Leif; Hovi, Jon (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      We study experimentally how enforcement influences public goods provision when subjects face two free-rider options that roughly parallel the nonparticipation and noncompliance options available for countries in relation ...
    • Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes 

      Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of ...
    • Why the United States did not become a party to the Kyoto Protocol: German, Norwegian, and US perspectives 

      Hovi, Jon; Sprinz, Detlef F.; Bang, Guri (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2012)
      According to two-level game theory, negotiators tailor agreements at the international level to be ratifiable at the domestic level. This did not happen in the Kyoto negotiations, however, in the US case. We interviewed ...