• The effect of rapid adjustments to halocarbons and N2O on radiative forcing 

      Hodnebrog, Øivind; Myhre, Gunnar; Kramer, Ryan J.; Shine, Keith P.; Andrews, Timothy; Faluvegi, Greg; Kasoar, Matthew; Kirkevåg, Alf; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; Oliviè, Dirk Jan Leo; Samset, Bjørn Hallvard; Shindell, Drew; Smith, Christopher J.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Voulgarakis, Apostolos (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Rapid adjustments occur after initial perturbation of an external climate driver (e.g., CO2) and involve changes in, e.g. atmospheric temperature, water vapour and clouds, independent of sea surface temperature changes. ...
    • Energy Budget Constraints on the Time History of Aerosol Forcing and Climate Sensitivity 

      Smith, Christopher J.; Harris, Glen R.; Palmer, Matthew D.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Collins, William J.; Myhre, Gunnar; Schulz, Michael; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Ringer, Mark; Storelvmo, Trude; Forster, Piers M. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      An observationally constrained time series of historical aerosol effective radiative forcing (ERF) from 1750 to 2019 is developed in this study. We find that the time history of aerosol ERFs diagnosed in CMIP6 models ...
    • Observational Evidence of Increasing Global Radiative Forcing 

      Kramer, Ryan J.; He, Haozhe; Soden, Brian J.; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Myhre, Gunnar; Forster, Piers M.; Smith, Christopher J. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Changes in atmospheric composition, such as increasing greenhouse gases, cause an initial radiative imbalance to the climate system, quantified as the instantaneous radiative forcing. This fundamental metric has not been ...
    • Radiative forcing of climate change from the Copernicus reanalysis of atmospheric composition 

      Bellouin, Nicolas; Davies, William H.; P. Shine, Keith; Quaas, Johannes; Mülmenstädt, Johannes; M. Forster, Piers; Smith, Christopher J.; Lee, Lindsay; Regayre, Leighton; Brasseur, Guy; Sudarchikova, Natalia; Bouarar, Idir; Boucher, Olivier; Myhre, Gunnar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Radiative forcing provides an important basis for understanding and predicting global climate changes, but its quantification has historically been done independently for different forcing agents, has involved observations ...