Now showing items 488-507 of 514

    • Verdien av klimatiltak 

      Aaheim, H. Asbjørn (CICERO Report;1996:01, Research report, 1996)
      The study surveys the literature on the economic costs of climate policy in different countries and world wide. Studies of costs to achieve national targets on emissions are partly based on bottom-up approaches, where ...
    • Virkemidler som virker i klimapolitikken? Om fleksible virkemidler og et nasjonalt kvotesystem 

      Alfsen, Knut H. (CICERO Policy Note;1999:02, Working paper, 1999)
      Debatten om norsk virkemiddelbruk i klimapolitikken tok et stort steg framover sommeren 1998 med Stortingets vedtak om utredning og innføring av et nasjonalt kvotesystem. Spørsmålet om hvilke virkemidler vi skal bruke i ...
    • Virkninger av klimaendringer i Norge 

      Sygna, Linda; O'Brien, Karen (CICERO Report;2001:01, Research report, 2001)
      Denne rapporten oppsummerer et seminar arrangert av CICERO Senter for klimaforskning om ”Virkninger av klimaendringer”. Seminaret fant sted på Håndverkeren i Oslo, 30.- 31. oktober 2000. Bakgrunnen for seminaret er et ...
    • Virksomme klimabudskap 

      Lannoo, Elisabeth; Reed, Eilif Ursin (CICERO Report;2016:01, Research report, 2016)
      Denne rapporten gir en kort oversikt over hva forskere og kommunikasjonseksperter mener er det viktigste som skal til for å få folk engasjert i klimasaken og hvilke verdier forskjellige målgrupper baserer sine valg på. Den ...
    • Visjoner av lavkarbon Norge 

      Torvanger, Asbjørn; Bjørnæs, Christian; Lund, Harald Francke; Oort, Bob van (CICERO Reports;2016:09, Research report, 2016)
      Vi har utviklet visjoner av Norge i 2050 som et lavkarbon og klimarobust samfunn, basert på innspill fra en referansegruppe fra næringsliv, organisasjoner, myndigheter, forskningsmiljø og miljøorganisasjoner. De viktigste ...
    • Vulnerability to climate stress - local and regional perspectives 

      Eriksen, Siri E H; Owuor, B.; Nyukuri, Elvin; Orindi, Victor (CICERO Report;2006:01, Research report, 2006)
      This report presents the proceedings of two related workshops, taking place in January/February 2005, that presented findings of the project ”Adaptation as a livelihood struggle: conflict and vulnerability among dryland ...
    • Vurderinger av norsk klimapolitikk - En syntese av fire internasjonale rapporter 

      Alfsen, Knut H.; Bjørnæs, Christian; Reed, Eilif Ursin (CICERO Report;2011:02, Research report, 2011)
    • Wave transition in household energy use 

      Zhang, Rui; Wei, Taoyuan; Sun, Jie; Shi, Qinghua (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      The energy ladder model and energy stacking model have been proposed in the literature to describe the relations between income growth and transition of energy consumed by households. Both models are largely descriptive ...
    • Wealth, Welfare and Sustainable Growth and Development: Challenges of Economic- and Fiscal Policies in Resource-Producing Countries 

      Moe, Thorvald (CICERO Policy Note;2011:01, Working paper, 2011)
      This Policy Note discuses, based on modern development theory and wealth accounting, challenges for economic- and fiscal policies in resource-producing countries defined as countries - both developed and developing low ...
    • Wealth-dependent and interdependent strategies in the Saami reindeer husbandry, Norway 

      Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Tveraa, Torkild (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      It has been argued that decisions in relation to choosing strategies to a large degree depend on an organism's state. For nomadic pastoralists, wealth is an important state variable since it has been argued that differences ...
    • What controls the vertical distribution of aerosol? Relationships between process sensitivity in HadGEM3-UKCA and inter-model variation from AeroCom Phase II 

      Kipling, Zak; Stier, Philip; Johnson, Colin E.; Mann, Graham W.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Bauer, Susanne E.; Bergman, Tommi; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas; Ghan, Steven John; Iversen, Trond; Kirkevåg, Alf; Kokkola, Harri; Liu, Xiaohong; Luo, Gan; van Noije, Twan P.C.; Pringle, Kirsty J.; von Salzen, Knut; Schulz, Michael; Seland, Øyvind; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Takemura, Toshihiko; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016)
      he vertical profile of aerosol is important for its radiative effects, but weakly constrained by observations on the global scale, and highly variable among different models. To investigate the controlling factors in one ...
    • What might be minimum requirements for making the mechanism of Joint Implementation under the Climate Convention credible and operational 

      Selrod, Rolf; Torvanger, Asbjørn (CICERO Report;1994:04, Research report, 1994)
      Joint implementation (JI) is a mechanism under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The criteria of the mechanism are yet to be decided upon, but discussions in the International Negotiating Committee (INC) ...
    • What relevant information do the integrated assessment models and scenarios from the 1.5 °C special report provide for Norway? 

      Aamaas, Borgar; Peters, Glen; Wei, Taoyuan; Korsbakken, Jan Ivar (CICERO Report;2019:18, Report, 2019-12)
      The Norwegian Environment Agency (Miljødirektoratet) has requested a report to “get more detailed and nationally policy relevant information about the IAM-scenarios assessed in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ...
    • What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research 

      O'Brien, Karen; Eriksen, Siri E H; Schjolden, Ane; Nygaard, Lynn P. (CICERO Working Paper;2004:04, Working paper, 2004)
      In this paper, we discuss two competing interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature and consider the implications for both research and policy. The first interpretation, which can be referred to as ...
    • What’s Fair – and Why? An Empirical Analysis of Distributive Fairness in the Climate Negotiations 

      Tørstad, Vegard H. (CICERO Report;2016:04, Research report, 2016)
      In the climate negotiations, conceptions of fairness plays an important role. For a climate agreement to be effective and durable, it must be conceived as fair by as many of its parties as possible. Unfortunately, there ...
    • When Does Informal Enforcement Work? 

      Aakre, Stine; Helland, Leif; Hovi, Jon (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      We study experimentally how enforcement influences public goods provision when subjects face two free-rider options that roughly parallel the nonparticipation and noncompliance options available for countries in relation ...
    • Where You Stand Depends on What You Sell – Saudi Arabia’s Obstructionism in the UNFCCC 2012-2018 

      Flisnes, Morten Kaldhussæter (CICERO Report;2019:11, Report, 2019-08)
      Negotiations on climate change in the United Nations represents the key tool in addressing our time greatest challenge. Countries have negotiated on climate change for decades, and the talks ultimately resulted in the Paris ...
    • Who governs the environmental policy in the EU? A study of the process towards a common climate target 

      Gerhardsen, Marte (CICERO Policy Note;1998:04, Working paper, 1998)
      The agreement in the Environment Council of March 1997 came as a surprise to most observers and the target was immediately regarded as a radical contribution to the international negotiation process. The Council lists up ...
    • Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes 

      Næss, Marius Warg; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of ...
    • Why quota trade should be restricted: The arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading 

      Westskog, Hege (CICERO Working Paper;2001:07, Working paper, 2001)
      In this paper I try to clarify the background and arguments behind the EU position on emissions trading in negotiating the Kyoto Protocol and their suggestions of how the supplementarity cap in the Kyoto agreement can be ...